However, there is a light at the end of the tunnel: according to the New York Times, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards the Nobel prizes, announced last week that it planned to change its nomination guidelines to make more room for diversity in the future.
Two Americans and one Briton have won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for developing new processes used to create drugs, chemicals and biofuels.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which chose the winners, said Arnold, 62, conducted the first directed evolution of enzymes, whose uses include "more environmentally friendly manufacturing of chemical substances such as pharmaceuticals and the production of renewable fuels".
The first drug based on this work is used against rheumatoid arthritis, a skin condition known as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease.
Female chemistry laureates are not as rare as physics laureates, although Arnold is only the fifth in the award's history, after Ada Yonath who won the prize for her work in elucidating the structure of ribosomes in 2009; Dorothy Hodgkin, who won for her pioneering work in crystallography in 1964; and Irene Joliot-Curie who won for discovering artificial radioactivity in 1935.
The other half will be jointly split between George Smith from the University of Missouri, US and Gregory Winter from the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in the United Kingdom who developed a technique called phage display. The methods he has developed have produced antibodies that can neutralize toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases and cure metastatic cancer. "It's happenstance. That was certainly the case with my work", he told the AP.
Arnold, a breast cancer survivor, is the second woman to win a Nobel Prize this week. When an antibody, or Y-shaped protein, is added to the mix, it binds to the peptide. Sir Gregory P. Winter was born in 1951 in Leicester, in the United Kingdom.
George P Smith photographed at his home in Columbia, after learning he had won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
MU, under the leadership of Cartwright and System President Mun Choi, has begun a major push to double research spending and build a new laboratory to bring discoveries in medicine into clinical use.
He concludes, "Very few research breakthroughs are novel".
After repeatedly screening and mutating those microbes, she could use them to build a more powerful version of a desired protein. On Tuesday, Canada's Donna Strickland became only the third woman ever to be honored with the Nobel Prize in physics, and the first one since 1963.
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And he revealed he planned to party on by splashing out £2,793 of his prize money on a champagne celebration at his laboratory.
The website of the Nobel Prize points out that numerous people who have won the prize for Chemistry could equally have won the Prize for physics as well.
The Nobel Prize in Literature has been postponed because of the institution that chooses the laureate being embroiled in a sexual assault scandal.
Women have claimed the Nobel Prize at least 12 times in three of the other four fields - peace, literature and medicine - with economics still nearly exclusively the domain of men.