More efficient use of government-owned buildings, for example, can help reduce lease costs, the International Monetary Fund said, while Britain has shifted away from inflation-linked bonds to limit the interest rate risk in the Bank of England's bond portfolio.
Is China an open economy?
"We certainly hope we don't move in either direction of a trade war or a currency war".
She said, "A combination of factors has basically affected emerging market since then". The reserve requirement ratio (RRR) was cut by a full percentage point, effective Octover 15, injecting a net 750 billion yuan (US$109.2 billion) in cash into the banking system.
"He said in the case of Nigeria, the rise in oil prices is sustaining economic activity, but oil exporter", pointing out that oil prices could decline at some point, and so it is important to have some constraint on how much debt is issued. "Potential gains from better asset management are considerable".
Asad Umar, Pakistan's incoming finance minister, speaks during an interview in Islamabad.
Further threats to global economy include "unsettled" politics and the escalating trade tensions between the U.S. and China.
On Monday, it downgraded world growth forecasts for next year, blaming new trade barriers.
He said the talks would be held for "such a programme, a stabilisation, a recovery programme, on which basis we could overcome this financial crisis".
In May, U.S. President Donald Trump's administration, which considers both Tehran and Moscow threats worthy of American sanctions, pulled out of the controversial Iran nuclear deal approved in July 2015 with Russia's help. "I just say they're not ready yet".
One could be the ending of "easy money". It warned countries that it would be a mistake to roll back regulations put in place after the crisis.
"Support for multilateralism has been waning, a unsafe undercurrent that may undermine confidence in policymakers' ability to respond to future crises".
The American economy has been performing strongly, encouraging worldwide investors to move capital there and invest in the dollar.
The United States continues to grow strongly and the Federal Reserve raised interest rates for the seventh time in the last eight quarters at its latest policy meeting in September.
Montfort Mlachila, senior resident representative for International Monetary Fund in South Africa, said that countries like Zimbabwe, Eritrea, and Mozambique were facing worrying levels of debt and as the International Monetary Fund they were concerned about the situation in these countries. Still, investors have thus far differentiated among emerging markets, rather than fleeing wholesale.
China's economy could also take a hit: The IMF revised its forecast for economic growth in 2019 down to 6.2 percent, slightly lower than previous estimates and down from 6.6 percent this year.