Syrian state media confirmed explosions in the area, but offered no details.
The official news agency SANA said the attack occurred in the countryside in Kisweh, just south of Damascus, an area known to have numerous Syrian army military bases.
Syria accused Israel of launching an airstrike against a military installation near Damascus overnight in which eight Iranians were allegedly killed, Ynet reported Wednesday.
President Donald Trump's announcement Tuesday that the US would withdraw from the 2015 nuclear deal with Iran has triggered uncertainty and threatened to spark more unrest in the Middle East.
"It is hard to believe that, 73 years after the Holocaust, there is still a country in the Middle East - Iran - that openly calls for the destruction of the State of Israel", Netanyahu said during the talks with the Russian President Vladimir Putin after both leaders took part in the Victory Day celebrations in the Russian capital.
Israel's military says Iranian forces based in neighboring Syria fired about 20 projectiles at Israeli positions in the Golan Heights.
"The meetings between us are always important and this one is especially so", Netanyahu said before departing.
"For months now, Iran has been transferring lethal weaponry to its forces in Syria, with the objective of striking at Israel", Netanyahu said.
There was no immediate comment from Israel, which nearly never confirms or denies airstrikes in Syria.
Iran has vowed to retaliate to recent Israeli strikes in Syria targeting Iranian outposts, including an attack last month on Syria's T4 air base in Homs province that killed seven Iranian military personnel.
"The Iranians declare their intention to attack us", Netanyahu's office cited him as saying in a statement. During the Syrian Civil War errant fire struck the Golan several times; usually local organizations in southern Syria that are affiliated with Iran, Hezbollah and the Assad regime were behind those rockets.