Langer's first assignment is next month's one-day global series against world number one England.
Langer signed a four-year contract and takes over an Australian team that is without captain Steve Smith and vice captain David Warner.
Border was Langer's first Test skipper when his career was starting out and believes that his approach to coaching will bring success to the team.
Langer who retired from worldwide cricket in 2007 has signed a four-year deal.
He has acted as Australia's head coach on an interim basis, in a limited-overs series in the Caribbean in 2016, and at home against Sri Lanka previous year.
He was appointed as the batting coach for the national team from 2009-12 before taking over as head coach in Western Australia in 2012.
The pair became one of the most prolific opening combinations in history, seeing off the new ball in 113 Tests for a combined 5,655 runs at an average of 51.58.
In Test cricket, he scored more than 7,500 runs - including 23 centuries - and was an integral member of the Australian men's team during one of the most successful eras of all time. The new coach is having a lot of challenges in front of him and for nearly a year he will have to make do without the likes of Steve Smith and David Warner. I love the way he plays his cricket.
"He sat me down and said you can either be on the train or you can jump off it". We have got to make sure the behaviours are good. Has Steve Smith? Has Cameron Bancroft? "The Australian Cricket Team is in great hands", Gillespie tweeted. They have all got areas.
"Try telling every young kid in Australia that a baggy green isn't something to aspire to", he said.
"I think about Matty Hayden and Adam Gilchrist and Ricky Ponting and Glenn McGrath, they are literally like my brothers and that's what we've got to keep promoting".
"It was ANZAC Day a few weeks ago and one thing about Australia is mateship is really important and elite mateship within the Australian cricket team is going to be a key value".
"If you split the coaching, you'll get different philosophy between coaches, which might not fit that mandate".
"There are some big tournaments coming up".
"But ultimately, if I fast forward it, the Indian Test tour in about three or four years' time, to me that's the ultimate", the coach added.
"Great appt, congrats to Alfie @CricketAus will do a great job".
"I look back on my career, the Mount Everest moment was 2004 when we finally beat India in India". "We'll have to work on that", he said.
Editorial team of CricketCountry. I like us to all to be tight. We've got to be aware of that but let's not underestimate how proud we should be of Australian cricket history.