In this June 1, 2017, photo, President Donald Trump listens as EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt speaks about the USA role in the Paris climate change accord in the Rose Garden of the White House in Washington.
Feldman said the State Department was "losing incredibly gifted officers at a moment when the USA needed them more than any other time in recent history".
The decision, which Mr Trump said would protect the USA economy, was met with much rancour worldwide.
Trump announced last week that the United States would leave the worldwide climate agreement, which has been signed by nearly every country in the world and was forged at a two week summit in December 2015.
In a farewell speech to colleagues, Rank cited Trump's decision last week to leave the Paris accord as the reason, according to the people, who asked not to be identified because they weren't authorized to comment publicly.
The New York Times quoted unnamed friends of Mr Rank as saying he was deeply frustrated about the USA policy toward China, particularly regarding climate change.
Foreign Service officers take pride in putting their personal politics aside and representing their country, under both Republican and Democratic presidents, making this type of resignation unusual.
Even the department of United States said that they did not know anything about it. "We appreciate his years of dedicated service to the State Department", the official told TheDCNF. He couldn't immediately be reached for comment.
From 2011 to 2012, he was political counsellor at the U.S. embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan, and was director of the State Department's bureau of Afghanistan Affairs. Rank becomes the second U.S. diplomat serving at one of the largest embassies in the world to publicly split with Trump in recent days.
In this department, Rank has been serving from past 27 years in distinct countries.