The anti-Israel rallies are an annual event marking Al-Quds Day, a historic Arabic name for Jerusalem. Demonstrators burned Israeli and American flags while others posed for selfies in front of yellow-painted missiles - including the Zolfaghar, the type Iran fired this week at alleged Islamic State targets in Syria.
"Death to the House of Saud and Daesh (IS)", the demonstrators chanted.
Tensions have risen sharply in the Gulf between Qatar and four Arab states, including Saudi Arabia, in part over Doha's links with Iran.
Iranian Ghadr missiles - which are capable of reaching Israel - were on prominent display at the rallies.
"We are here to express our hatred against Saudi Arabia, Israel and America", said Zahedi, 57.
That day, Defense Minister Hossein Dehghan said a world without violence "is a world free from the Zionist regime" and called Israel the "root cause of all problems, violences and insecurities in the Muslim world and the entire world".
"The current situation in the Islamic world is the result of plots hatched by the axis of United States and the Zionist regime and the negligence of some regional leaders toward the problems of the Muslim world and the oppression of the Palestinian people", said Hossein Amir-Abdollahian, who serves as Secretary General of Iran's "Palestine Intifada Conference".
Iranian President Hassan Rouhani has said his country will not give in to U.S. pressure and continue to go on the path it has chosen.
Rouhani told reporters on Friday that Al-Quds Day is an global event and its message to the world is "detestation of the occupying regime (of Israel) and support for the great nation of Palestine", official IRNA news agency reported.
Authorities unveiled a large countdown panel at Palestine Square in central Tehran, displaying the number of "days left before the destruction of Israel".
They warned that Rouhani would face the same fate as Abolhassan Bani-Sadr, Iran's first elected president after the 1979 Islamic revolution, who was impeached by parliament less than two years later in 1981.
Protesters could also be seen burning the IS flag, after the terrorist group claimed responsibility for a deadly attack in the country's capital earlier this month.
Some participants also carried placards with pictures of Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei and quotes about Jerusalem that are attributed to him.