A suspected bomb outside a mosque in Herat also killed at least seven people and wounded 15, police said.
No group has claimed the attacks, but the government has blamed the Taliban-allied Haqqani Network for Wednesday's bombing.
In his speech, Mr. Ghani warned the Taliban that they would not succeed in bringing down the government, and said that the aim of the so-called Kabul Process was to ensure peace with support from neighbouring countries and the global community.
Previous estimates said 90 people were killed in the bombing, the country's deadliest militant attack since 2001.
With security deteriorating under a resurgent Taliban and as Islamic State steps up attacks, there has been talk of Afghanistan's government collapsing and the country becoming a training ground for groups like Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad, said Manoj Joshi, a distinguished fellow at the New Delhi-based Observer Research Foundation.
Afghan President Ashraf Ghani, center, poses for group photo with delegates during the so-called Kabul Process, a gathering of 23 nations, the European Union, U.N. and North Atlantic Treaty Organisation meant to discuss security and political issues in the country, at the Presidential Palace in Kabul, Afghanistan, Tuesday, June 6, 2017.
We have tried [all sorts of negotiations] to bring an end to conflict and terror but Pakistan continues to host terrorist sanctuaries, he said further. The situation becomes murkier as Afghan Taliban have categorically stated that they had nothing to do with these attacks and instead they condemned them.
Ghani pointed out to delegates attending the meeting that 75,000 Afghans were killed or wounded in 2015 and 2016.
Extending an olive branch to the Taliban, Ghani said if the group is prepared to join peace negotiations, he will allow them to open an office.
Earlier this year, a top United States commander warned of a "stalemate" in the fight against the Taliban unless more foreign troops were committed.
I would be remiss to my people if I did not say that our top priority must go to finding an effective way to [initiate] dialogue with Pakistan, said Ghani in one of dozens of tweets.
Referring to the long list of Jamiat politicians assassinated over the years-including his own father, former President Burhanuddin Rabbani, who was killed by a suicide bomber in 2011-Rabbani said the attacks now appeared aimed at the whole party.
But a Taliban spokesman told The Times that talks are pointless while foreign troops remain in the country. Afghanistan expert Michael Kugleman told DW Trump's Afghanistan policy will in many ways be quite similar to that of the Obama administration.