Australia has for decades walked a fine line between preserving economic ties with China, its largest trading partner, and the United States, its most important ally.
While terrorism is a key item on the agenda, the region will also be listening closely to Mr Turnbull's address as it grapples with the "fickle nature" of American foreign policy and whether they can arely on the USA to engage in ongoing security challenges, Australian National University defence and strategic expert John Blaxland told AAP this week.
Discussions are also underway to allow Singapore's Air Force to continue operating a training detachment at the main Royal Australian Air Force base in Western Australia for another 25 years.
"China believes all countries are equal, the big and small ones, and we adhere to the principle of peaceful coexistence with all the nations by maintaining regional stability", lieutenant general He Lei, the head of the Chinese delegation to Shangri-La, told Chinese media after the speech, according to a video of his remarks.
The high-level meeting is taking place in the the shadow of President Donald Trump's decision to pull out of the Paris climate agreement, a move that - after also pulling out of the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal - is being widely seen as a major victory for the isolationist voices in his inner circle.
"The United States' own interests in the Indo-Pacific demand more USA engagement, not less", he said.
Speaking to reporters on Saturday, Mr Turnbull "absolutely rejected" there was a danger Australia could be viewed by China as America's deputy sheriff or "cat's paw", adding "Australia's foreign policy is conducted in Australia's national interest and Australia's national interest alone".
During a joint press conference between Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and Mr Turnbull at the Istana, it was announced that Singaporeans will have exclusive access to a new long-term, multiple-entry visa option by Jan 1 next year, making it easier to travel to Australia.
Australia is concerned about Beijing's military build-up in the South China Sea, one of the world's busiest shipping lanes.
Cyber Security Agency of Singapore (CSA) chief David Koh, who signed the agreement with Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade's Ambassador for Cyber Affairs, Dr Tobias Feakin, said the MOU demonstrates both nation's commitment to work together to build a secure and resilient cyberspace.
"China has gained the most from the peace and harmony in our region, and consequently it has the most to lose if it is threatened".
He said it could build up trust by using its leverage to rein in rogue state North Korea. And he issued a warning against Beijing's island-building in the South China Sea, saying the region needed "cooperation, not unilateral actions to seize territory or militarise disputed areas".
For some, Turnbull's criticism of China's didn't go far enough.