He has also dismissed the elite presidential guard after almost 300 of its members were detained.
The suspension of staff from various public offices came after July 15-coup bid which is believed to have been orchestrated by Gulen followers, who have been accused of attempting to infiltrate Turkey's vital state institutions - especially the military, police apparatus and judiciary - with the aim of creating a "parallel state".
The government believes Fethullah Gulen was its mastermind, a Muslim cleric living in the USA and because of this, Ankara also felt Washington had prior knowledge of what was about to unfold.
Turkey made moves to restructure their once impenetrable military and Erdogan was instrumental in the top military leaders, who have since been let go of their posts.
Fethullah Gulen, a former ally of Mr Erdogan, has called on the U.S. government to block Turkey's attempts to extradite him.
Earlier on Saturday, Turkish authorities also detained a nephew of Gulen in connection to the coup attempt, the Anadolu state news agency reported.
Turkey has imposed a three-month state of emergency, saying it would enable authorities to effectively root out supporters of the failed coup.
Halis Hanci, described as Gulen's right-hand man, apparently entered Turkey two days before the abortive coup, a presidency official told reporters.
Amnesty International said Sunday that it has "credible evidence" that some detainees in Turkey are being beaten, tortured, raped, and denied food, water and medical treatment.
His critics fear he is using the aborted coup to wage an indiscriminate crackdown on dissent. Among them is one of Turkey's most prominent human rights defenders, Orhan Kemal Cengiz, who was stopped at Istanbul's Ataturk Airport and transferred to a local police station.
Banners were hung on road bridges, subways and advertising boards around Istanbul with the words "Hakimiyet Milletindir" (The People Rule).
Amid a sea of red flags, banners bore slogans such as "We defend the republic!"
"Our goal is that it shouldn't be extended, but if the need arises it may of course be extended", he said in an interview with the ATV television station.
Prime Minister Binali Yildirim will chair the council composed of ministers including justice, interior, finance, foreign, education, defense and labor, according to the decision published in Turkey's official gazette. Power to the facility was cut during the coup attempt and was restored Friday, the US miltiary said.
Erdogan, who narrowly escaped capture during the uprising, told Reuters that he would restructure the armed forces and bring in "fresh blood".
The base had been operating on a backup generator since July 16, when power was shut off at all military bases in Turkey following a failed military coup.
President Erdogan declared a state of emergency on Wednesday.
The state of emergency, which was approved by the Parliament on Thursday, allows the government to pass laws without first having to win parliamentary support.
More rallies were planned over the weekend in many towns and cities. Turkey has demanded his extradition from the United States and said it would have a dossier ready to submit to the USA in ten days' time. Lawyers say that process could take many years.
The purge of supposed Gulen supporters has ensnared more than 53,000 people, who have either been removed from their jobs or suspended, with a further 10,000 people detained.
In Ankara, the minister for European Union affairs chided Western countries for not sending any representatives to demonstrate their solidarity with Turks since the coup attempt.